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Term Paper: Political Activism in Iraq

Term Paper: Political Activism in Iraq

However, Haifa Zangana, an Iraqi novelist, argues differently.  Her documentary City of Widows depicted how the position of Iraqi women has actually deteriorated after the invasion as opposed to before. She discusses the history of Iraq as a country riddled with war and political activism which has not really been allowed to grow on its own and build from within its own cultural and social identities. According to her, as a woman who was born in Iraq and has seen it all first hand, the invasion actually made matters worse with women going from one of the most liberated in the Middle East to those who find themselves losing their loved ones and going through life with children but no one to provide for them (Zangana). A feeling of helplessness enshrouds the women of Iraq as they battle through life within a semi-calm civil war like situation where their husbands may get kidnapped from their very homes with no trace whatsoever. It is estimated that 22,000 Iraqis have gone missing ever since the invasion of Iraq in 2003 (Zangana). Such cases are usually ransom oriented and with ransoms ranging from a few thousand dollars to more than a million, the documentary dubs it as a lucrative business. Women have limited certainty of life and security with the police often unable to help or even register a case against the culprits responsible. Apart from the civilian suicide attacks and racial violence this is another matter plaguing the women of Iraq. If a kidnapping does occur or a family member goes missing, the women are forced to do their own search, travelling from police station to police station, looking up hospital registries and Missing Person centers. This scenario is very effective in stripping the women of their rights to enjoy life and live peacefully (Zangana).

What can thus be seen is a war situation similar to the Vietnam scene as the U.S seems to have stepped into a marsh where from it is not only finding it difficult to extract success out of but

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News Paper Reading Habit Among the Professional College Staff Members for Various Points of View: a Survey

News Paper Reading Habit Among the Professional College Staff Members for Various Points of View: a Survey

INTRODUCTION

News papers have collected information from all directions. It helps to improve reading habit, knowledge skills and current awareness about world. Most of the people wish they read more. It is an activity that is both fun and enlightening. It can help us be more knowledgeable and successful. However, it is an activity that many people don’t engage in very much. According to the 1999 National Household Education Survey, 50% of the U.S. population aged 25 and over read a newspaper at least once a week, read one or more magazines regularly, and had read a book in the past 6 months. What does this mean? It means that 50% of the population hasn’t read a book in the last six months! And most of the staff members read the news papers for various purposes it’s clearly defined this article. So now a day news papers reading habit important for all the staff members because more information’s exist and to identify the latest development in their subject or field.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Begum and Ramesh (1991) investigated the Factors inhibiting the public library use; A case study of city central library, Mysore. This article “Factors inhibiting the public library use” analyzed the responses gathered from the users of the City central library, Mysore, India. Assesses the reading interests, factors inimical to the use of City central library, availability of reading materials and the necessary improvements suggested by the users to the existing conditions of City central library ., Mysore.

Somsong(1999), Reading habit promotion in ASEAN libraries. This paper described the different activities that ASEAN Libraries had undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. Firstly, factors limiting reading habit in ASEAN Libraries had been approached. Secondly roles of local institutes or organizations in helping libraries conducting reading habit promotion had been acknowledged. Finally some suggestions on effective methods and successful programs of reading habit promotion by ASEAN Libraries had been collected

Bndaka(2007) investigated the using newspaper articles to develop students’ Reading skills in senior high school that the aim of this paper is to present a reading lesson which was initially designed for the students of Peiramatiko Senior High School (Experimental Senior High School) of Patras, Greece and more specifically for class A of Senior High School. The main aim of the lesson was to develop the students’ reading skills using a newspaper article and help student’s gain confidence when faced with authentic texts. The planning of the lesson was based on the belief that students should be exposed as much as possible to authentic reading texts so that they are given the chance to encounter real language and not only the language made up of course books

RESEARCH DESIGN

This topic deals with the content and the meaning of the undertaking study in terms of objectives and process of analyzing the formation of hypothesis. It also explains the methodology of study with respect to sampling from interview schedule, sources of data, method of data analysis and limitation of study.

Objectives

The main aim of the study is to analyze the News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view: A survey. The following are the subsequent objectives:

1. To study the socio economic conditions of professional college staff members.

2. To study the news reading habit among the professional college staff communities.

3. To observed the professional college staff members read the news paper for various purpose

4. To make suggestions for the effective reading of news papers in the professional college staff community.

Methodology

For realizing the objectives of any study data, it is required and in turn, for the collection of data, a field is selected to realize the objectives of the study to collect data required for the purpose, the researcher choose News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view: A survey

Method of data collection

For collecting the data the researcher has prepared interview schedule for the users and distributed to them. The empirical research design and random sampling technique was applied to select the sample.110 questioners were distributed to the sample and 105 were received back. Out of the 105 samples taken from professional college staff members in Einstein college of Engineering, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu. 11 samples were from professor and 24 samples were from Asst. professor. 39 samples were from lecturer, 28 samples were from Non teaching staff and 3 samples were from others staff community.

Data Analysis

The collected data were entered in the master table and sub-tables were created. The statistical tools like average and weighted percentage have been used.

ANALYSIS

SOCIO ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF THE STAFF MEMBERS

Table.1

Distribution of professional college staff community according to Sex.

S.No Occupation Male Female Total

1 Professor 6

(54.5)

5

(45.5) 11

(10.5)

2 Asst. Professor 14

(58.3) 10

(41.7)

24

(22.8)

3 Lecturer 31

(79.5)

8

(20.5) 39

(37.1)

4 Non teaching staff 22

(78.6)

6

(21.4) 28

(26.7)

5 Others 2

(66.7)

1

(33.3) 3

(2.9)

Total 75

(71.4) 30

(28.6) 105

(100)

Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 1 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members according to sex. Out of all the respondents, 71.4 percent are male followed by Female (28.6).

Among all the professional staff members, more than 75 percent of the respondents from male are seen in Lecturer (79.5) and Non teaching (78.6) staff communities and more female respondents are seen in Professor (45.5) and Asst. Professor (41.7) staff communities.

It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the more than 75 percent of male staff members in lecturer and Non teaching staff are reading the news paper then female.

Table.2

Distribution of professional college staff community according to their occupation wise.

S.No Occupation No. of Response No response

1 Professor 11(10.5) –

2 Asst. Professor 24(22.8) –

3 Lecturer 39(37.1) –

4 Non teaching staff 28(26.7) –

5 Others 3(2.9) –

Total 105(100) –

Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 2 indicate the distribution of professional college staff according to their occupation wise. Out of all the respondents, Most of the respondents are lecturers (37.1) and followed by the non teaching staff (26.7), Asst. Professor (22.8), Professor (10.5) and few respondents (2.9) are others staff member

NEWS PAPER READING HABIT

Table.3

Distribution of professional college staff members according to the habit of reading news papers.

S.No

Professional college staff Habit of reading news papers

Total

Yes No

1 Professor 7

(63.6) 4

(36.4) 11

(10.5)

2 Asst..Professor 19

(79.2) 5

(20.8) 24

(22.8)

3 Lecturer 30

(76.9) 9

(23.1) 39

(37.1)

4 Non teaching staff 26

(92.8) 2

(7.2) 28

(26.7)

5 Others 1

(33.3) 2

(66.7) 3

(2.9)

Total 83

(79.0) 22

(21.0) 105

(100)

Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 3 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members according to the habit of reading news papers. Out of all the total respondents, 79.0 percent are having the habit of reading news papers and (21.0) respondents do not have the habit of reading news papers.

Among all the professional college staff members , majority of respondents are from non teaching staff who are having the habit of reading news papers followed by Asst.Professor (79.2), and Professor (63.6). More respondents from others (66.2) do not have the habit of reading news papers.

Table.4

S.No Frequency Response Percentage

1 Daily 35 33.3

2 Twice or Thrice per week 31 29.5

3 Once in a week 22 21.0

4 Very rarely 17 16.2

5 Never 0 0.0

Total 105 100

Distribution of professional course staff members according to frequency of reading news papers

Source: computed

The data in table 4 indicate the distribution of professional course staff members according to the frequency of reading news papers. Among all the total respondents, 33.3 percent are to read the news papers ‘daily’ and followed by the persons are Twice or thrice per week (29.5), once in a week (21.0), very rarely (16.2) and no one (0.0) never read the news papers.

Table.5

Distribution of professional college staff community according to the reading habit of news papers from various points of view.

Professional college staff Reading News papers for various point of view

Total

Main heading Important news Political news Employment

news Entertainment news

Professor 2

(28.6) 2

(8.6) 2

(28.6) 1

(14.2) 0

(0.0) 7

(8.4)

Asst..Professor 5

(26.3) 4

(21.1) 0

(0.0) 10

(52.6) 0

(0.0) 19

(22.9)

Lecturer 7

(23.3) 2

(6.7) 6

(20.0) 15

(50.0) 0

(0.0) 30

(36.1)

Non Teaching staff 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 2

(7.7) 16

(61.5) 8

(30.8) 26

(31.3)

Others 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 1

(10.0) 1

(1.3)

Total 14

(16.9) 8

(9.6) 10

(12.1) 42

(50.6) 9

(10.8) 83

(100)

Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 4 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members from various points of view. Out of all the total respondents, 50.6 percent read news papers for employment news, followed by the Main headings (16.9), Political news (12.1), Entertainment (10.8) and important news (9.6).

Among all categories of the college staff members, more than half of respondents are lecturers (50.0), Ass. Professors (52.6) and Non teaching staff community read the news paper for employment news. Others staff community read entertainment news only. Few respondents who are professor (28.6) and Asst.Professor (26.3) read main headings and important news in the news papers.

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

SOCIO ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF THE STAFF MEMBERS

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to sex revealed the following facts. The staff members from male read the news papers than female.

NEWS PAPER READING HABIT AND VARIOUR PURPOSE

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to habit of reading news papers revealed following facts. More than 75 percent of the professional college staff members are having the habit of reading news papers. More Non teaching staff communities have the habit of reading news paper. More others group staff community do not have the habit of reading news paper.

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to frequency of reading news papers revealed following facts most of staff members read the news papers daily and twice or thrice per week. Some staff members read the news papers once in a week and very rarely.

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to the reading habit of news papers from various points of views revealed following facts. More than half of the staff members are Non teaching, Asst. professor and lecturer read the news papers for employment news purpose .Others staff community read only entertainment news from the news paper.

Constraints:

Most of the staff members have felt that news papers must be read completely but time is too short for them to read the news paper.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

In order to maintain and raise the News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view the following suggestions may be found useful.

1. To promote news paper reading habit among the others staff community in professional college.

2. Electronic news papers are more help to read all information very short period.

3. Online news papers may help to find out latest development in various field, employment news, and other important news.

4. Now day’s professional college staff members must read the news papers for improve their knowledge skills.

5. The educational institutions should motivate and give opportunity to the professional college staff members for read online news papers and improve their knowledge skills.

6. The following are some suggestions to help you strengthen your reading habit ways to find and make more time for reading, always have a book around, set a reading goal, keep a log, keep a list, turn off the television, listen when you can’t read, Join a reading group or book club, Join a reading group or book club, build your own strategy and drop everything read

CONCLUSION

In this study the researcher concluded that the staff members from male read the news papers than female. More than 75 percent of the professional college staff members are having the habit of reading news papers. More Non teaching staff communities have the habit of reading news paper. Majority of the staff members read the news papers for employment and entertainment news only.

REFERENCES

BOOKS

Allen, Harrell.T. New methods in Social Science Research. New york: Praeger Publishers, 1978

Kothari, C.P. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Wishwa prakashan, 1990.

Kumaresan, S.C and Swaminathan,S. Library science unleashed. Trichy: Rock City Publications, 2003

JOURNALS

Begum, Khaiser Jahan and Ramesh, C.P. “Factors inhibiting the public library use: A case study of city central library, Mysore.” Library Review. (1991): 332-350.

Bertot,John Carlo, Mcclure, Charles R and Ryan ,Joe Statistics. “Performance Measures for Public Library Networked Services.” Library and Information Science Research.23 (3)2001:299-300

Bndaka ,Eleni. “Using newspaper articles to develop students’ Reading skills in senior high school”. The Reading Matrix 7 (1)(2007)

Somsong, Sangkaeo . “Reading habit promotion in ASEAN libraries.” 65th IFLA Council and General Conference Bangkok, Thailand. 28August1999.

Yilmaz ,Bülent. “Reading and library usage habits of the students whose mother tongue is Turkish in Vienna, Austria.”66thIFL council and General conference Jerusalem, Israel. (2000): 13-18.

Arulraj, R is working as Librarian in Department of Library and information science of Einstein college of Engineering, Tiruneveli District (Tamil Nadu). He has completed

BSc (Botany), MLIS and Mphil (Library and Information science). Now he is doing PGDLAN (Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking) course. He has three years experience in Library professional. His research interest includes reading habit, performance evaluation, Knowledge management, users study and information seeking behaviors in library and information science. He is also involved in writing more research articles on different topics. He is the member of SALIS (Society for the Advancement of Library and Information Science and Librarian world.com.

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