Tag Archives: American

General Motors, the American British Leyland

General Motors, the American British Leyland

In 1979, the voters of Britain went to the polls. The result of that election would go on to have repercussions that can still be felt today. The voters made a brave choice. A first for British politics. The good people of the British Isles voted for a woman. At the time, the British car industry had a few problems and as a result government money, our money, was used to prop up an ailing industry that produced bad cars, badly.

Controlled by the unions, British Leyland was doomed to failure, but had to be supported to avoid the losses of hundreds of thousands of jobs. So it was. Billions of pounds were used to keep a company going that built cars that people did not want to buy. Old technology, poor build quality and union strikes all contributed in making the British car industry a laughing stock worldwide.

So what happened to the British car industry? Simple, it collapsed. Over the following years the profitable bits were sold off to companies that could make cars people wanted to buy. The bits that nobody wanted died a slow painful death, notably the Rover brand that finally curled its toes up in 2005.

Fast forward thirty years and American voters have just been to the polls. The voters made a brave choice. A first for American politics. The Good people of the U.S. of A. voted for an African American. As you know, the American auto industry is having a few problems at the moment and as a result, government money, your money, is being asked for to prop up an ailing industry that produces bad cars, badly.

Thirty years ago in Britain there was a huge push to buy British. A great idea apart from the fact that the goods you were buying were inferior to those manufactured by the Japanese and the Germans. No doubt there are those over the pond who currently espouse this as the cure to their industries woes, unfortunately, it didn’t work here and it will never work there. Germany and Japan produce cars that sell in every market in the world. People dream of owning a Mercedes Benz or a top of the range Lexus. Not many people look to General Motors for their next dream car.

With all of America’s big three deeply in trouble and even more deeply in debt, Barrack Obama will have a difficult choice to make. Invest billions of public money to support an industry, that to onlookers seems doomed to failure, or don’t invest and let capitalism take its course. Either way, this American dilemma certainly bears a striking resemblance to the fortunes of the UK car industry and we all know what happened to that.

To survive in any form, American manufacturers must try to build cars that will sell in all markets, domestic and overseas. The problem they face is that overseas manufacturers already do this and if we’re being brutally honest, they do it quite well. So instead of wasting all those billions propping up an ailing industry, why not buy Mercedes or Toyota and move them to the US? It may cost you more in the short term, but in the long term you’ll have a car industry that builds quality cars that people will want to buy throughout the world. The alternative? Well, take a look at British Leyland.

If you are in the market for a new car, why not take a look at a new Mercedes or a new Toyota.

Production of Sub–immersion—sub-internationalization Identity Through African American Studies

Production of Sub–immersion—sub-internationalization Identity Through African American Studies


” race” is a misleading word since there is no” race “that is composed of biologically pure individuals because of the human migration and the interracial births. Also different ethnicities don `t have pure culture because people with different ethnicities shared and share cultural heritage. And although these two (race and ethnicity) are different since one is considered biological and the other is considered cultural but the two sometimes go hand in hand like when we face to” identity “and “racism” .

This belief of racism that one racial category is superior or inferior to another , is a stereotype. Stereotypes are n` t only negative but also positive and they are n `t only toward out-groups but also toward in-group. Also the feedbacks of one in-group or minorities to the others` stereotypes sometimes can cause to strengthen and aggravate stereotypes.

According to this approach, In this article I try to explain that although one of the major aim of establishing African American studies is to challenge racism and racial discrimination , but as its courses and syllabus show, they (scholars) have accepted stereotypes of out –group about themselves and they believe in “blackness” as a “race” because they have overly separated their culture from American culture and ignored acculturation between African American culture and American culture .

Thus this ignoring is a feedback to out-group stereotypes and it itself is an in-group stereotype which prevent African Americans to make a internationalization-commitment identity but a sub-immersion— sub-internationalization identity.

Black Racial Identity

“They are all like that”, it is a common term when we tend to classify people who are n `t in our in -group. ( out-group homogeneity theory).

But why and how do we classify people? ( I will examine this issue in another essay)

And most important than this question is that who are “we” that tend to separate “we” from “others”?

As I will examine this issue in this essay in the case of African American studies:

First African Americans accept themselves as “we” , so they believe in black racial identity

Second although one of the aim of African American studies is to challenge racial discrimination and racism , but as courses show ,it represents the racial view of African Americans ( although scholars)

Third African American studies strengthen the racial view and blackness as a race.

As Cross( Bobo,2004) described , black racial identity development has five stages :

1- Preencounter : African American has absorbed many of the beliefs and values of dominant white culture – white is right , black is wrong

2- encounter: [ ]events forces the individual to acknowledge the impact of racism in one` s life.

3- Immersion: everything of value in life must be black or relevant to blackness, avoiding of symbols of whiteness

4- Internationalization: establishing meaningful relationship with white who acknowledge a positive sense of racial identity

5- Internationalization-Commitment: translating personal sense of blackness into a general sense of commitment

But African American studies seems to recede partly to third stage- immersion stage – that I claim it strengthens a new kind of identity which I call it ” sub- immersion –sub- internationalization”.

Concept Of Stereotype

According to stereotypes theory when we change the stereotypes, we do in one of three ways:

1- book keeping model: adjusting the stereotypes to adapt to the new information

2- conversion model: throwing away the old stereotype and start again

3- subtyping model: creating a new stereotype that is a sub- classification of the existing stereotype

but I `d like to add another way of changing the stereotypes regarding to given new kind of African American identity ; sub immersion- sub internationalization:

4- addition model : keeping old stereotype ,adding new information

We not only create stereotypes about others but about ourselves. As it is evident in the case of African American Studies , they keep the sense of blackness and add internationalization ,but not blackness nor internationalization change each other .

I examine my hypothesis in four universities and college: Boston University,Yale University ,University of Visconssin–Madison and Bates College.(although their courses are n `t the same but they are very similar)

At first the courses seem to be neutral :















JAZZ IN TRANSITION, 1960 – 1980,












But let to examine the description of some courses:

White redemption: cinema and the co-optation of African American history:

Since its origins in the early twentieth century, film has debated how to represent black suffering,.this course examines one aspect of that debate: the persistent themes of white goodness ,innocence , and blamelessness in films that are allegedly about black history and culture .historical and cultural topics examined in film include the enslavement of Africans , reconstruction , and the civil rights movement .particular attention is given to films in the Interracial male- buddy genre.


An examination of the history of race and medicine in the United States, primarily but not exclusively focused on African Americans’ encounters with the health care system. Topics include slavery and health; doctors, immigrants, and epidemics; the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the use of minorities as research subjects; and race and genetic disease.

As we see ” AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES” ignores interaction between African American culture and American culture.

Interaction Models & Crosscultural Models

If we link categories of black racial identity development to interaction models and crosscultural models( Nishida,1999) and then evaluate and judge about African Ameriacn Studies according to this ,will find out a new fact:

1- Genocide model , segregation model, adaptaion model and assimilation model

with preencounter identity

2- resistance with encounter and immersion identity

3- acculturation model and pluralism model with internationalization and inter

nationalization –commitment identity

Now we will find out that African American Studies has ignored dealing with cultural interactions and acculturation in this discipline and its courses . There is no courses about multiculturalism , interactions between African culture and American culture ,and about effects of American culture on African culture.

So identity in this discipline instead of going to internationalization –commitment identity stage, reverts and recedes to immersion stage and reproducing resistance interactions .

Thus this discipline produces a new kind of identity which I called it “sub immersion –sub internationalization” identity .

Conclusion :

As explained ,one of the most important aim of establishing African American Studies had been going ahead to the stage of internationalization-commitment identity through pluralism (interaction model) and regarding to acculturation (crosscultural model), but because of a misleading change of out-group `stereotypes ,it causes to recede partly to the immersion identity stage.

According to a new type of changing stereotype which I called it “addition model’ ,African Americans (scholars) kept the old sense of blackness (as a race) and add internationalization to it.

This caused a new but monstrous type of identity which is not an immersion identity nor an internationalization-commitment identity ; but sub-immersion—sub-internationalization identity.

So this discipline instead of developing internationalization – commitment identity , strengthens the racial view and blackness as a race .

But here there is one important question:

Since this process occurs in academy ,what is its influence in society ?Its answer can be explained in another essay.


1- Four model of interaction among racial and ethnic categories;

Pluralism: Pluralism is a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are

distinct but have social parity. Pluralism is the goal of our society’s recent

trend toward multiculturalism

Assimilation : Assimilation is the process by which minorities gradually

adopt patterns of the dominant culture.

Segregation : Segregation refers to the physical and social separation of

categories of people. Until the early 1960’s, the Jim Crow laws formally

segregated hotels, restaurants, parks, buses and even drinking fountains

Genocide… The most brutal form of racism is the genocide which is the

systematic annihilation of one category of people by another

2- crosscultural models:

Adaptation: process of change over time that take place within individuals

who have completed their primary socialization process in one culture and

then come into continuous

assimulation: it is uni- directional process toward the host culture and

requires value changes

acculturation:it is a bi-directional process and doesn `t require changes in



1-Bobo,J.Hudley,C.Michel,C,2004,THE BLACK STUDIES READER,NewYork,Routledge,pp.397-400.

2-Nishida,H,1999,A Cognition Approach to Intercultural Communaication Based on Schema Theory,Int.J.Intercultural Rel,Vol.23,No.5,p 762







Mitra Naeimi

Course: Ethnology of America

MA student of North American Studies

Tehran University

How American People Vote

How American People Vote

Every election is always different from another. But there is a thing that is the same for every election – it is the reason American people vote. Americans vote because they want their country to have a decent leader, a man that will do everything possible to promote theirs country position in the world’s politics in the first place. They cannot stay out of that, because every vote counts and they know it. There is also another reason American people vote, it especially concerns those, who are not good at observing what is going on in the Senate now. Such people usually vote by tradition without really getting into the essence of the deal. It is more than just knowing the political party candidate when it comes to participating in the elections. Even in America, where the two party system exists it is still a problem to make people know whom they are voting for. This system has been used in the United States for a long time. Its roots lead to the very moment of the first ratification of the Constitution. At that moment two political parties were defined – the Federalist Party and the Anti-Federalist Party. Soon it became a tradition and it happened because this system was pretty good in use. It was easier for people to have only two options. So since 1895 the Republican and the Democratic parties became the major dominants in American politics. This system gives the opportunity to choose from only two candidates for President of the United States. This actually shows that this system in not probably the best when it comes to elections, but it is traditionally fixed. What it really does – it simplifies the process of voting. You either vote for the Republicans who are conservative, or for Democrats who are liberal. It has been historically proved that the appearance of the third party causes political splits like it happened when Theodore Roosevelt decided to form the Progressive party in 1912 but most of the time due to the in difference of the voters to them the other parties get no support. Talking about elections it is very important to point out the Electoral College. The reason of its foundation was the difference in electing the president by popular vote and by Congress. Such things caused and still cause a lot of troubles during the elections. The Electoral College was called as a compromise between these two. Its structure is obviously well built. It consists of 538 electors. Each one goes for each of the 435 members of the House of Representatives and 100 Senators plus three for the District of Columbia. The number of electors is equal to of House members to which it is entitled. The electors are originally chosen by the political parties. During the elections each state gives the Governor prepares seven original Certificates of Ascertainment. A Certificate of Ascertainment is a list of these electors for the candidate that got the majority of the votes. Then the copies are sent to House of Congress. It is necessary to have 270 electoral votes to elect the President or Vice President. And the electors are not obligated to vote the same way as the majority of their state did. So the Electoral College runs in order to make the elections more objective.

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American Theocracy, a Book Review

American Theocracy, a Book Review

In his two most recent books, American Dynasty and Wealth and Democracy, Kevin Phillips has perhaps rightly earned the prestigious moniker of America’s premier analyst and critic. Now, in his new release, a doom and gloom tome some 480 pages long, Kevin Phillips assails three overlapping, growing, forces that threaten to rain on the parade of the American way of life. Actually, American Theocracy : The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century, at .95 retail is still a great value because it is really three books in one, with just enough threads woven between the very different but often interrelated fabrics to help illustrate the upcoming perfect storm.

Kevin Phillips, as a former Republican strategist and observer for over 30 years, has a keen sense of the current political and economic landscape. When contrasted against his commanding historical perspectives, the author is aptly able in his book to show how past world powers, from the Roman to the British empires, have faced and failed the same critical circumstances the United States currently faces at the beginning of the 21st century. American Theocracy demonstrates that essentially every world dominating power is lured by the sirens of global over-reach and ultimately falls into the traps of resource depletion, runaway debt and the wars of militant religion.

In Part I of American Theocracy, Kevin Phillips looks at the ramifications of our preocupation of oil, past and present. The book maintains that American supremacy was derived by our exploitation and effective use of a newly useable form of energy on the world stage. While other nations were trapped in their inertias of coal, wind and water infrastructures, America quickly realized the versatility of this black gold and leveraged a nation around it. In fact, with only roughly five percent of the world’s population, Americans still consume over 25 percent of the world’s oil. But supply of this precious resource has always been a concern. American Theocracy points to World War II especially, which was waged by Japan and Germany to secure their hold on this vital fossil fuel for modern economies. The book takes care to explain that America itself has been heavily involved in its own petro-imperialism over the last century. Moreover, the life blood of our economy is becoming more difficult to find and extract even as the world economies are demanding more. One little know fact in all of this, as other Middle East supplies are being exhausted, is that Iraq is the last large pool of oil on the planet. And all of this still virtually untapped, near the surface. American Theocracy describes how Iraq has never been able to pump much of its oil, with U.N. sanctions in the 90’s, war with Iran in the 80’s and so forth. With the thinly disguised cloak of spreading democracy and fighting terror, it is of little surprise, given our history of petro-imperialism in the Middle East, and the fact that there is an estimated one trillion dollars in estimated profits for the (American) companies who will pump it, that we found ourselves with troops in Iraq.

Complicating matters further, Part II of this book explores the unprecedented rise in evangelical religion and its surging influence in American politics, especially under the presidency of George W. Bush. Kevin Phillips believes Republicans view the world in apocalyptic terms and endeavor to shape domestic and foreign policy around fundamentalist religion. This undue influence of faith over fact, and religion over (prudent) reason has resulted in inept policies, which only serve to weaken our respect, prestige and effectiveness in the world. This zealous underpinning has put us on a collision course with much of Islam, swelling the ranks, ironically, of terrorists, not to mention many other miscalculations, putting us in peril of a self-fulfilling prophecy. American Theocracy describes how we are endangering our future, as virtually every war is fought over resources or religious ideology. We seem to be running out of the former and have an over abundance of the latter.

In Part III, American Theocracy contends what is the traditional hallmark of an overextended world power: over consumption and massive public and private debt. Huge trade deficits, trillions of dollars in national debt and financial speculation, made worse by the influence of big business and Wall Street on Washington only serve to exacerbate the problem. The Republican Party, once the icon of sound fiscal policy, has discarded its ideals by mortgaging our country’s financial health and future to the whim of other countries in order to fund and maintain our status quo around the world.

American Theocracy : The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century is not without its critics. Many feel Kevin Phillips is biased and bigoted in his view as he tackles the concerns he has for the Christian right and their influence in America today. Others may feel he is not always accurate in his facts. But this is to be expected by stirring the pot and necessarily not always being politically correct. Having said that in view of the import of the thesis presented in no way detracts nor dismisses these vital problems all Americans face.

John Woolf is the founder of several successful Internet technology companies including the Book Price Comparison website CompareBook.com. As a pragmatist of the world around him, he is both a critic and crusader on international politics and energy policy as it relates to our security and our impact on the global environment.

Visit Compare Book to read reviews, find similar titles, and search for the guaranteed lowest price for American Theocracy : The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century, and other great books.

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Keep up with American Politics with web 2.0 and 4G Technology

Keep up with American Politics with web 2.0 and 4G Technology

With such a technologically-savvy President such as President Obama, it’s easier now than ever to stay updated with what is happening in the country politically. During his bid for the 2008 Presidency, Obama took advantage of the benefits of using the internet to get messages out to the general public, and boy did it pay off. Some have even said that if the internet didn’t exist, not only would Obama have lost the election, but he wouldn’t have even been a Presidential nominee! Clearly though, having instant access to the internet is continually more important, which is why access to wireless internet and a smart phone is more important than ever.


President Obama has carried his emphasis on technology from his campaign into his Presidency. After giving whitehouse.gov a total maker-over, Obama’s staff members set their sights on bigger goals. Quickly, they had set up 11 blogs, a podcast, a youtube channel, a twitter account, a facebook page, and a facebook app to dispense political news to Americans as fast as possible. Currently, the White House has 1.75 million followers on twitter, 540,000 Facebook fans, and 26 million views on youtube! A year into the Obama Presidency, the White House created it’s own iPhone app to meet the growing demand for resources that reach mobile broadband users (whom according to whitehouse.gov increased by more than 100% in 2009). The excitement of these developments can’t be understated. All of these new web 2.0 resources enable Americans to have greater access to the President than at any other time in history! The most beautiful aspect about using these web 2.0 programs is that Americans everywhere can comment and interact with the news the White House dispenses, and when you think about the importance of free speech in our society, the use of web 2.0 is really helping to make America more democratic than ever before. Even First Lady Michelle Obama has joined the bandwagon. She recently became the first First Lady to tweet on twitter, and also creates weekly podcasts and videos to talk about her political endeavors.


After seeing how powerful the use of web 2.0 technology was in President Obama’s election campaign, other politicians are scrambling to catch up. In the next Presidential election, news will be delivered even faster as newer smart phones incorporate 4G technology (as opposed to the current standard of 3G). Even though all the candidates will surely try to match Obama’s technological prowess, chances are they won’t be up to par. Obama’s former competitors John McCain and Sarah Palin are both active web 2.0 users. Senator McCain’s twitter account has over 1.7 million followers, and even though it’s highly unlikely that he’ll attempt another run for the Presidency, he can still use the account to rally support for his senatorial re-election bid as well as dispense important news to his constituents. Even non-partisan groups are pushing for current politicians to create web 2.0 accounts. In the name of increasing transparency and therefore democracy, TweetCongress.org has set out to get all 535 U.S. Representative to sign up for twitter accounts (currently only 72 are). President Obama is also promoting this new form of democratic participation by promising to increase access to wireless internet for Americans all over the country.

To keep up with politics as things happen, you need clear 4g internet. 4g internet access helps give you access to web 2.0 accounts quickly and reliably so you can stay connected with the world around you.

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Racial & Gender Reality in American Politics

Racial & Gender Reality in American Politics

In recent years we have been fed the idea that political correctness is finally a way of life in America. Television, Hollywood, Internet and print media are all presenting this idea as fact. Ethnic entertainment stars and politicians are trotted out as examples of just how politically correct America has become. But, is the picture a true one Will it apply this election year

It was not so many years ago that there was a deeply seated notion that certain ethnic groups were incapable of the intelligence required to handle a political office. And, women were seen as emotionally incapable of making political decisions based on logic rather than emotion. It took government action and the U.S. Supreme Court to force America, kicking and screaming, to accept that  all men are created equal, women as well. Yet, groups such as the Ku Klux Klan or K.K.K., while mostly underground these days, exist along with white supremacists.

If you believe historians, we in the North have always been more liberal toward minorities and women. We are now told that the South, while deeply rooted in the traditions of the past, is starting to admit that black people are worthy of being called human beings. And, that blacks have intelligent ideas and solutions for improving the areas in which they live. We are asked to believe, in general, the South now recognize the equality of all people as human beings, rather than being blinded by skin color or gender. I would argue that the opposite is really the truth.

Society, North or South, still has much work to do in regards to eradicating racism and gender and religious bias. On the surface it appears there have been major strides in the political arena. This year even sees a black presidential candidate and a white female presidential candidate. While the polls show each has a strong chance of becoming President, the election is many months away. The issues of race and gender will play key roles in political campaigns behind the scenes. Campaign workers will capitalize on racial and gender bias when contacting voters. They will do this in positive and negative ways depending upon the voting group being contacted.

For the most part, it s true that black people and women are no longer considered to be property. Blacks are no longer forced to walk behind white people in a neighborhood, no longer forced to ride in the back of a bus, nor drink from a separate fountain or use separate lavatory facilities. However, black people are treated largely as equal to white people because it s the law of the land. Americans were forced, by law, to give women and blacks the right to vote, for example. They could no longer be denied the rights enoyed by most Americans for decades. The right to vote has given minorities and women tremendous power.

Many minorities and women today are becoming the heads of major corporations many are now earning salaries equal to, if not higher, than their white counterparts, some rising to the top of their profession at an equally fast rate. This is a major step in the right direction to reduce racism and gender bias but, again, under the force of law. In addition, there are minorities and women in offices of political power across the country thanks, largely, to the right to vote laws.

Minorities and women are slowly starting to take positions as politicians at the federal, state, and local levels. This is a major step forward, and a sure sign that, with time, racial and gender bias will be beaten.

Some advancement is due to open minds, people who truly look past color, religion, and gender. You will find them in pockets of liberalism around the nation. Where a minority or a woman is elected, there you will find open minds, people who vote on where the candidates stand on issues. The exception, if there is one, is where the candidate represents a district that is largely populated by voters of a background similar to the candidate.

In the South, there is still the Ku Klux Klan operating. Although they are significantly weaker than was the case 100, 50, or even 20 years ago, they continue to work behind the scenes to deny blacks their rightful place in America. Such groups and organizations impede progress, clinging to their hate and ignorance. But, despite their attempts blacks are making a name for themselves, and proving they are as capable of political talent as anyone else in the country. While this progress is largely because of the force of voting rights laws, we should be encouraged. With the advancements that have been forced in the last few decades, it possible we may see a President who is a minority or female in this generation.

Will it be in Election 2008 I do not believe so.

My reasoning for this pessimism is simple What we see publicly portrayed in Media, this idea that America is now politically correct, is not reality. Test this for yourself by raising this subject with someone. I doubt they will admit they are racially or gender biased. Most likely they will say positive things to your face but will vote just the opposite. While this is the reality in America, it is our right to vote our choices regardless of how misguided such thinking is

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